Sir Isaac Newton was an English physicist and mathematician who is famous for his laws of motion and theory of gravity. His work was diverse and included the study of thermodynamics and a design for a reflecting telescope. Newton also experimented with light, coined the word spectrum and demonstrated that white light contained all colors of light. He was also a mathematical scholar who developed theories of calculus.
In 1665, Newton was a student at Cambridge University when a deadly outbreak of the bubonic plague caused the school to close. Newton returned home where he observed an apple fall from a tree. This observation, during a devastating time, inspired him to formulate a law of universal gravitation.